The Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Date :From 2015-04-06 To 2015-05-08
Advisory committee :
Local coordinators :
International coordinators :David Blair (UWA), Zhu Zong-Hong (BNU) and Yanbei Chen (Caltech)


Co-sponsors: Beijing Normal University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Shanxi University, National Astronomical Observatory of China, National Tsing Hua University, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Semiconductors, The University of Glasgow, The LIGO Laboratory, The European Gravitational Observatory Consortium, The Albert Einstein Institute, The KAGRA Project, The University of Western Australia, Australian National University, University of Adelaide, Melbourne University, CSIRO Australia.
1.     Rationale and Program
The first detection of gravitational waves by ground-based detectors in the 10Hz – 10 kHz frequency band is expected after advanced gravitational wave detectors now being installed and commissioned reach their full sensitivity, between 2016-2020. Signals from the known population of binary neutron stars are expected, as well as signals from other sources such as binary black holes.
In addition to ground-based detectors, space based detectors for the millihertz band are under active development, pulsar timing observatories are searching for gravitational waves in the nanohertz band, and studies of the cosmic microwave background are searching for evidence for gravitational waves at ~10-16 Hz.
The need for an expanded array of ground-based detectors is well understood. Expansion of the array and particularly the addition of a southern hemisphere detector will greatly improve angular resolution, array duty cycle, source galaxy identification, and source parameter estimation. The expanded array should be designed to maximise the science outcomes of gravitational wave astronomy in regard to both the fundamental testing of general relativity and astrophysical observations. New approaches and new technologies for ground based gravitational wave detectors have been under development for a number of years.
This KITPC Program will bring leading experts in gravitational wave astrophysics, gravitational wave detector science and engineering, quantum opto-mechanics, precision optics, fine mechanics and materials science together in a 5 week program focused on designing the next ground based detectors, and special sessions and workshops on the optimum design for space based detectors.
Future detector designs depend crucially on key enabling technologies in which there has been intense theoretical and experimental research over recent years. These include
·         theory of acoustic noise and development of optical materials that combine ultralow acoustic noise and optical losses,
·         theory and technology for Newtonian gravitational noise reduction,
·         theory and implementation of macroscopic quantum measurement techniques.
Considerations for evaluating different detector arrays include: a) knowledge and modelling of signal sources; b) modelling of detector array performance in relation to source parameter extraction and signal to noise ratio; c) methods of data analysis; d) capabilities and performance of multi-messenger astronomy techniques.
Finally, design choices for the next ground based detectors will depend on practical considerations that include the time scale for achieving performance requirements, understanding of the risks associated with design choices, and cost trade-offs versus funding opportunities.
Week 1 will focus on the entire gravitational wave spectrum. Pedagogical content designed to be accessible to senior undergraduates and postgraduate students.
Week 2 : Third Beijing Workshop on Gravitational Waves (held at Tsinghua University, Beijing). (FIT Building, near the East Gate of Tsinghua, see map [])The workshop focuses more on theory, computing and data analysis.The 3rd Beijing Gravitational Waves Workshop will be held at **Tsinghua University, located 25 minutes north from KITPC, on foot (FIT Building, room 1315, near the East Gate of Tsinghua, see map []).
Weeks 3-4: Exploration of Designs for the Next Detectors
Week 5 Programme outcomes and conceptual designs. Final worshops and discussions. Publications: Special multi-authored review papers on the next ground based detectors plus contributed papers to be published in a special issue of a high quality journal. Confirmation of contract March 2015.
2. Draft Program
About 50 international participants and 100 participants from China are expected to attend the KITP Program, which will take place on the Campus of the CAS-KITP in Beijing. See the KITPC web site for details. All participants will receive invitations from KITPC.
April 6-10: Week 1: Gravitational Astronomy: Introductory Lectures and Workshops
Pedagogical introduction to gravitational wave physics, astronomy and detector science; the spectrum from 10-16 Hz to 104 Hz. Review speakers on current observations and upper limits, theory of sources, detection principles, noise sources and data analysis.
Opening lecture
Dave Reitze: Advanced LIGO and the Dawn of Gravitational Astronomy
Keynote Lectures
Luo Jun (Proposed): Spacecraft detectors for Gravitational waves
Linqing Wen: Detection of gravitational waves by pulsar timing
Emil Schreiber: GEO600: an advanced technology detector
Stefano Vitale: The LISA Pathfinder Mission and eLISA
Michel Boer: Multimessenger astronomy for probing the gravitational universe.
Yanbei Chen: The quantum mechanics of gravitational wave detection
Carlo Baccigalupi: Searching for primordial GW in the Cosmic Microwave Background
Federico Ferrini: Status of Advanced Virgo
Workshop Leaders and Topics
Dave Reitze: The Next Detectors for Gravitational Astronomy
David Blair: The GW Spectrum,
Hyung Mok Lee: Black Hole Binaries
Andrew Melatos: Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars
Chrisiano Palomba: Searching for Continuous Gravitational waves
George Hobbs: Radio pulsar timing for nanohertz detectors
Leo Singer: The first gravitational wave signals.
Oliver Jennrich: Space based gravitational wave detectors
Australia-China Collaboration in Gravitational Astronomy: special meeting.
April 12-16: Week 2: Third Beijing Workshop on Gravitational Waves — Invited and contributed talks on the state of the art: detectors, sources and data analysis
·         Detectors: Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, Kagra and GEO-HF
·         Sources: neutron star and/or black hole binaries, gamma ray bursts, cosmological and continuous wave sources, and other related topics.
·         Data analysis: low latency pipelines, computing, parameter estimation, veto, bursts or compact binary coalescences, multi-messenger astronomy and analysis of detector arrays, and other related topics
·         Multi-messenger astrophysics: optical, X-ray, or gamma ray counterparts, neutrinos, and other related topics
·         Space detector design review.
·         Afternoon workshop sessions on technology issues.
The 3rd Beijing Gravitational Waves Workshop will be held at Tsinghua University campus next door to KITPC.
April 19-May 1: Weeks 3 and 4: Detector Science and Future Detector Design Options
·         Isolation, suspension and Newtonian noise reduction, light scattering, cryogenics, technical noise sources
·         Test mass designs and materials: silica, silicon and sapphire
·         Optical coatings – thermal noise and optical performance: doping of amorphous oxide coatings, crystalline coatings and microstructured mirrors
·         High optical power: lasers, thermal compensation, detector instabilities.
·        Quantum optics and quantum optomechanics techniques for new detectors and detector upgrades.
·         Detector design options
·         Priority areas for research: priority target sources
·         Detector location and orientation: optimising relative to existing, future and upgraded detectors
·         Detector shape, arm length: benefits and costs.
·         Test masses, optics, configuration, cryogenics, control techniques.
Keynote Lectures Weeks 3-4
Benno Willke: High Power Lasers for Gravitational Astronomy
Haixing Miao: How to define the best next detector
Raffaele Flaminio: The Case for Cryogenic interferometers
Yanbei Chen: Detectors beyond the free mass standard quantum limit
Garrett Cole: Advanced coatings for thermal-noise free detectors
Slawek Gras: Observation of parametric instability in Advanced LIGO
Han Sen: Developing ground based gravitational astronomy in China
Du Zhihui: Accelerated low latency searches for gravitational waves.
Stefan Hild: Choices for the next detectors
Oliver Jennrich: Designs for Space Based GW detectors
Proposed Workshops Leaders weeks 3 and 4.
(Provisional workshop plan. Days of week for workshops to be confirmed)
Week 3: Focus on test masses
Farrant, Mitrofanov, Han Sen: Test mass options: silicon, fused silica and sapphire
Cole, Chao Shiu: Options for advanced optical coatings
Rocchi, Veitch: thermal compensation for advanced detectors
Ju Li: Parametric instabilities and their control.
Zhu Zong-Hong, Han Sen, Blair : Australia-China Collaboration in Gravitational Astronomy
Degallaix: Silicon test masses and optics
Hammond: Ultralow thermal noise suspensions
Kawamura, Flaminio: Cryogenic interferometers
Week 4: Focus on configurations, arrays, signals and detection
Freise: software tools for detector design
Danilishin, Chen Yanbei, Hild, Steinlechner, Wei Cui: Configurations and quantum measurement options.
Zhao Chunnong, Wang Haibo, Miao: Optomechanical devices and methods for sub-SQL sensitivity
McClelland, Gao Jiangrui: Quantum squeezing
Cella, Paik: How to minimise Newtonian noise
Raffai, Hendry: Global array optimisation
Zhu Zong-Hong, Cai Rong-Gen, Han Sen: Developing ground based GWD in China
Willke, Lin Xuechun: High power lasers
Sukanta Bose, Cao Junwei, Wen Linqing, Lebigot: Data quality, data analysis and low latency.
Fan Xilong, Meng Su: Multimessenger techniques and future requirements
Buonanno, Cao Zhoujian: Understanding and simulating GW sources
Jennrich, Ye Xianji, Zhou Zebing: Space based gravitational wave detectors.
May 3-8 Week 5: Outcomes: Detector design proposal and write-up + Parallel Centenary of General Relativity Conference.
Special Lecture: Barry Barish: Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Fundamental Questions of the Universe
·         Analysis of detector proposals
·         Wrap-up workshops: convergence on design options
·         Write-up workshops
Write up Team: Information coming soon on special GR Centenary Journal Issue on The Next Detectors for Gravitational Astronomy.
3. Organisers
A) Coordinators: David Blair, Yanbei Chen, Zong-Hong Zhu.
B) Local Coordinating Committee: Zong-Hong Zhu and David Blair (co-chairs, BNU and UWA), Junwei Cao and Eric Lebigot (Tsinghua), Zhoujian Cao (CAS), Yun-song Piao (CAS), Wen Zhao (USTC), Fan Zhang (BNU), Ci Zhuang(KITPC). 
C) International Advisory Committee.
Rana Adhikara (Caltech), Matteo Barsuglia (APC), Chris Van Den Broeck(NIKHEF), Gianpietro Cagnoli (LMA), Rong-Gen Cai (KITP), Junwei Cao (Tsinghua), Zhoujian Cao (CAS-AMT), Shiuh Chao (NTHU), Eugenio Coccia(INFN), Karsten Danzmann (AEI), Federico Ferrini (EGO), Andreas Freise (Birmingham), Gregg Harry (Amer.U), Gerhard Heinzel (AEI), Stefan Hild (Glasgow), George Hobbs(CSIRO), Wen-Rui Hu (IMECH), Bala Iyer (RRI), Li Ju (UWA), Seiji Kawamura (ICRR, U Tokyo), Kazuaki Kuroda (ICRR), Hyung Mok Lee (SNU), Harald Lueck (AEI), Oliver Jennrich (ESA), Jun Luo (HUST), Ping Koy Lam (ANU and Tianjin), Xuechun Lin (CAS-IOS), Iain Martin (Glasgow), David McClelland (ANU), Michele Punturo (INFN), Cong-Feng Qiao (UCAS), Sheila Rowan(Glasgow), David Reitze (Caltech), B. Sathyaprakash(Cardiff), Bernard Schutz (AEI), David Shoemaker (MIT), Kentaro Somiya ( Tokyo Tech), Ken Strain (Glasgow), Peter Veitch (Adelaide), Jean-Yves Vinet(Nice), Haibo Wang (BNU), Harry Ward (Glasgow), Linqing Wen (UWA), Stan Whitcomb (Caltech), Yue-Liang Wu(UCAS, KITPC), Hsien-Chi Yeh(HUST), Shenghua Yu (NAOC), Tiancai Zhang (Shanxi), Chunnong Zhao (UWA), Wen Zhao (USTC), Zebing Zhou (HUST), Sen Han (USST).